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FEMA in Warren is On Hold

I was surprised to see FEMA had projects marked “On Hold
with due dates in 2016 regarding Warren,MI and the Clinton River.
It makes a person wonder if Funding has not been allocated
or some other bottleneck in the process hit a snag.

Perhaps SEMCOG or Macomb or Warren officials can shed light
on the issue of why FEMA projects would be on hold
when the Metro Detroit region just had a bad storm August 11, 2014

I must admit I chuckled to think of Warren as a Coastal community
with waterfront properties involved in FEMA project analysis

http://riskmapprogress.msc.fema.gov/
Risk MAP Progress Data 2014-10-20_ 0824.pdf

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FEMA Risk Map Warren Michigan

FEMA Risk Map Warren Michigan

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FEMA Risk MAP Progress Website

FEMA Risk MAP Progress Website

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FEMA Macomb Risk Progress Report

FEMA Macomb Risk Progress Report

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Warren Case 11051531S On Hold

Warren Case 11051531S On Hold

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Warren Case 13051847S On Hold

Warren Case 13051847S On Hold

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Warren Case 11051539S Completed

Warren Case 11051539S Completed

Can the Red Run be dredged deeper ?

A Dredging Technical Committee formed by the
Michigan DEQ with state and federal experts,
found that restrictions on dredging do exist within the
Clinton River AOC due to chemical contamination.

Dredging a river

Dredging a river

Stage 2 Remedial Action Plan – Clinton River
Great Lakes Management Unit DEQ
October 1, 2011

Sediments of the Main Branch of the Clinton River from Pontiac
to the confluence with Red Run Drain are
moderately contaminated with metals, petroleum hydrocarbons,
some semi-volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen
.
Based on historical data, the contamination is fairly
widespread throughout this portion of the river (MDEQ, 1995).
In comparison, sediments from the
Red Run Drain/Plum Brook drainage have historically
been moderately to heavily contaminated with metals,
petroleum hydrocarbons, semi-volatile organic compounds,
and nitrogen. Contaminants of particular concern
are mercury and PCBs
because they have caused
fish consumption advisories (MDEQ, 1995).

RECOVERY–R–PROJECT NUMBER 113809
Red Run Drain – sediment sampling and analysis
This opportunity is a Recovery and Reinvestment Act action
Solicitation Number: W911XK-09-D-0014
Agency: Department of the Army
Office: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Location: USACE District, Detroit
https://www.fbo.gov/?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=35c9a9eb5f9c0be9838099815dcb90bc&tab=core&_cview=1

Snippets from the IAGLR article
as seen September 13, 2011
The International Association for Great Lakes Research (IAGLR)
is a scientific organization made up of researchers
http://www.iaglr.org/jglr/release/37/37_3_432-446.php

Title
Reconstruction of sediment history in the Clinton River

~ “””the unique characteristics of the Clinton River
– Lake St. Clair system
appear to allow sediments to continuously build up””””

~ “””Understanding sediment accumulation is important to reconstruct
the past pollution levels, that are generated by urbanization and
industrialization along the Clinton River, in the water and sediments.
Pollution in Clinton River sediments was recognized in the early 1970s
and is considered a threat to the public health as water from the
Clinton River empties into Lake St. Clair ~”””

~ “””over a half-century worth of sediments of significant polluted
sediments appears to be preserved below depths that have been remediated.
When these polluted sediments are stirred up by storm and boat activity,
they might be carried out to Lake St. Clair where much of the Detroit area
receives their drinking water and about a third of all Great Lakes fish are caught“” ~

Original Publication Information

“Interconnected riverine-lacustrine systems as sedimentary repositories:
Case study in southeast Michigan
using 210Pb and 137Cs-based sediment accumulation and mixing models,”
are reported by Jason Jweda and Mark Baskaran
in the latest issue (Volume 37, No. 3, pp. 432-446)
of the Journal of Great Lakes Research, published by Elsevier, 2011.

Contacts
For more information about the study, contact Jason Jweda,
Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University,
Palisades, NY 10964, jjweda@ldeo.columbia.edu, (845) 365-8652.

Based on data from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Millions of gallons of combined sewage overflow often make it into
the Clinton River & Lake St. Clair, stirring up the sediment deposits.

Dredge Red Run Drain Deeper 2015 ?

Where did all the RECENT Millions of Dollars for the Red Run Drain go ?
I am not making this up folks – literally $$$ Millions has already been approved.
It is now the Fall Season of 2014 and no dredging has occurred.
The recent flood event of August 2014 damaged the Red Run Drain.
http://www.crainsdetroit.com/article/20140831/BLOG200/308319986/letter-oakland-drain-needs-to-be-fixed

Now there are even more landslides, more shoals, more “”pinch points”
and the channel has become shallow due to fresh dirt.
Will FEMA add funds, or ask for proof how the previous funding was used ?

It’s 2014 , a New Era, – not back in 1970 when it was a Federal Project.

Creation of the Red Run Drain

Creation of the Red Run Drain

I live in Macomb County, in Warren, near the Red Run.
WHY do I have to chase Oakland County documents to find out
what happens behind my house in Macomb County ?
It’s my money (taxes), your money (taxes), and your neighbors money (taxes).
Are you not the least bit curious exactly what it was used for ?
Why do houses still flood after 40 years of knowledge, studies, funding, etc. ?
Ask politicians questions, put them on the spot, hold them accountable !

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Old landslide shoal pinch point

Old landslide shoal pinch point

Look at the dates on these documents 2011, 2010, etc.
Yet no dredging has occurred, no digging in the channel.
Twenty Million Dollars = $20, 000, 000 already allocated.

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USACE  Twenty Million Dollar Project Red Run

USACE Twenty Million Dollar Project Red Run

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Press Release - Red Run Drain IMPROVEMENTS

Press Release – Red Run Drain IMPROVEMENTS

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Federal Stimulus Money Red Run Drain

Federal Stimulus Money Red Run Drain

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NTH Study Red Run Shoals

NTH Study Red Run Shoals

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Helical flow in river bend

Helical flow in river bend

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Climate change is real

As the earth warms ever so slightly, it impacts the weather.
Warmer air holds more moisture, hence it rains more.
This is happening ALL over the world and is a hard fact.

Numerous storms, news reports, video tape , all compiled
into relatively short “snippets definitely worth a watch.
Warren/Detroit featured at about the 5:15 mark

Hopefully the Regional City Planners are taking notes
as these changes will definitely affect local residents.
It is not a once in a lifetime thing, it will happen again, soon.
The earth as a whole will continue to warm, bringing more rain.

Listen to the explanations at the 6:50 mark
and make a mental note of the global weather changes
PLAN AHEAD, protect your possessions, get the “proper” insurance.
City officials can’t fix everything in a year or two, it takes time.
These are not individual isolated events, they are all tied together.

Fractured Macomb Politics on GLWA vote

Macomb County politicians are bickering among themselves
on “who” should represent the county in the GLWA,
and it appears they will wait till the very last minute
to formally decide the matter.

Wasn’t former Warren mayor Mark Steenbergh hired
by Macomb County Public Works to be the
“”Community Wastewater Services Manager“” ?
Wasn’t Steenbergh to act as a liaison to local officials,
the media and the public on issues ?
Steenberghs first day on the job was Oct. 31, 2011;
and he should be up-to-speed on it all in 2014.

Some would think the Water Department aka Drain Commissioner
and his department would pick a representative for the county.

Others feel its up to the relatively “new” executive department
to determine who represents the county for the GLWA.

Macomb County Commissioners don’t appear to be very vocal
in the media expressing their concerns, opinions, ideas, etc.
Multiple meetings over the past few weeks have not exactly
brought out much debate over an issue affecting us for 40 years.

Maybe they’ll all just sit back, relax and let Rick Snyder choose.

GLWA Detroit Michigan

GLWA Detroit Michigan

Communication between Counties

I don’t see much hope in the GLWA for water issues
changing much of anything for ordinary residents.
Oakland barely notifies Macomb when the Huge Kuhn Basin
discharges millions of gallons into Warren via the Red Run.
Where do you go to find out the timing of the discharge ?
Certainly not a Macomb County website or Social Media Outlet.

When I see the bungling and waste of resources in Macomb
— how can I expect to see TRI-COUNTY cooperation for
something like raindrops falling from the sky ?

My confidence is not high in Macomb County politicians
as I attended the GLWA open discussions held in Mt.Clemens
Now I see this fiasco in the newspaper regarding Macomb County

Massive TECH failure

Massive TECH failure

- Facilities are required to notify the MDEQ within 24 hours
when a CSO or SSO discharge begins.
– After the discharge ends, the facility must submit a
complete report including the locations and volume of the discharge.
THE CATCH – Online reporting sources are quite a bit slower

CSO and SSO Discharge Information
It appears that human intervention takes place
i.e. – it isn’t automatically updated or reported.

Reporting items in their entirety online
isn’t a priority for this organization

-
-

Sewer Maintenance Warren Michigan

My neighborhood was built in the late 1960’s
and the wastewater from those households
flowed towards Warrens WasteWater Treatment Plant.
How often are all the sewer pipes power jetted,
inspected for cracks, mis-alignments, corrosion, etc.?

The houses near the Ryan Road Bridge over the Red Run
do vibrate/shake/shudder/rattle when heavy trucks go by.
Warren City council is aware of this fact, as I’ve spoken
at the microphone, on camera, stating this fact, publicly.
Traffic volume on Ryan Road Bridge is 25,900 in a 24 hour period.
I assume traffic volume is higher at the Mound Bridge
as well as the Van Dyke Bridge over the Red Run.
If nearby houses are rattled by traffic, so are the underground
drainage pipes, connections, fittings, joints, manholes, etc.

Rainwater infiltration into the sewage drains causes big problems
as the pipes simply can’t handle excess , added, unnecessary flow.
One pipe system exist strictly for rainwater via steel grates on the streets,
and a separate drain system exist for toilets, bath water, laundry, etc.

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Distance to WasteWater Treatment

Distance to WasteWater Treatment

Most of the distance involved in gravity sewage transport from the
far NorthWest subdivisions involves 18 inch drainage pipe.
Gravity provides the transport power, using a downward slope.
All 17,300 feet involves gravity, NO pumps, to aid the flow.

As Warren is relatively flat, and drainage pipe slope was kept to a minimum,
perhaps semi-annual flushing and jetting would allow better capacity handling ?
Warren doesn’t use a lot of pumping lift stations to aid sewer transport.

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Gravity Sewer Systems

Gravity Sewer Systems

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Drain pipe capacity and slope decline

Drain pipe capacity and slope decline

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18 inch sewer drain pipe to plant

18 inch sewer drain pipe to plant

Drain flow House to Treatment Plant

I asked City of Warren Engineers to provide me the information
regarding exactly how my toilet flushes makes it to the
WasteWater Treatment Plant in Warren Michigan.
My Thanks go out to Curtis M. Kratt at the Engineering Division
for making the video shown below possible.
UN-fortunately he also mentioned City of Warren has
has no association with the Macomb County FLEX map viewer.

Ryan Road Red Run Bridge Warren Michigan

Ryan Road Red Run Bridge Warren Michigan

Follow the yellow line to see how the drains work for
items like the toilet, bathtub, laundry water, etc.
Folks near the intersection of Dawson Drive and Ryan Road
have had numerous basement drain flooding situations over the years.
Notice the length of the pipes, their diameter,
the many twists, turns, intersections, etc.
Keep in mind how many houses are connected as well.

Click video setting for HD 1080p and fullscreen for easier viewing

Infrastructure Funding Resurrection ?

Perhaps the recent Federal Government involvement (FEMA)
has brought new light, new discussions, brainstorming ,
upon mothballed ideas from years past ?

If; and I say IF again, – money was availableto do it the Right Way,
instead of simply getting by with minimal diminishing results,
knowing all we know now in 2014 (after years of direct observation)
What would be the Master Plan Strategy for the tri-county area ?

Warren appears to be a FOCAL POINT .
The interceptor runs straight through it,
as does the flow from the 12TownDrain aka Kuhn Basin.
Residents in Warren SHOULD NOT have to be bear the burden
of flooded basements/homes because of other counties inadequacies.

Perhaps Michigan really needs to focus on CLEAN WATER
being re-introduced to the rivers like the Clinton and Rouge;
instead of slightly screened, slightly treated, half-n-half,
semi-decent water from Retention Basins,
holding water only for a few minutes (literally).

Why exactly does the DWSD Treatment plant downtown Detroit
HAVE to be “”the”” place for ALL the water treatment ;
-because there are not enough treatment plants spread around town.
http://www.dwsd.org/downloads_n/about_dwsd/masterplan_wastewater/volume3/Technical_Feasibility_of_Satellite_Treatment.pdf

The DWSD treatment plant downtown has no space to grow larger.
Can the revised Pontiac facility work in conjunction with “others”
to actually release really clean great water into the Clinton River ?
Oakland County drain strategy involves the creeks, streams, rivers;
affecting people downstream in Macomb County during rain events.

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New Treatment Plant Clinton River

New Treatment Plant Clinton River

New WWTP Service Area

New WWTP Service Area

Oakland County Interceptor draining into Macomb County

Oakland County Interceptor draining into Macomb County

Macomb Oakland Sewage Interceptor

Macomb Oakland Sewage Interceptor

Problem Area Macomb Interceptor

Problem Area Macomb Interceptor

Interceptors Oakland Macomb Michigan

Interceptors Oakland Macomb Michigan

The Detroit Interceptors for Sewage

The Detroit Interceptors for Sewage

Request FEMA Flood Map Changes

Perhaps you think the current flood maps are outdated,
incorrect, need amendment, need a second look, etc.
You can go online and request FEMA re-evaluate an area.

Flood Insurance is a Sticky Wicket that needs EXACT INFO
and people have been burned for large dollar amounts.
People in places like New Jersey have horror stories about
dealing with FEMA, insurance, rate increases, house values.
Hurricanes have caused SEWER BACK-UPS in numerous states;
and the internet is full of info concerning FEMA.
BE CAREFUL what you sign, what you pay for, and understand it first.

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FEMA Online LOMC Application

FEMA Online LOMC Application

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LOMC online FEMA Flood Maps

LOMC online FEMA Flood Maps

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FMIX Info Exchange FEMA

FMIX Info Exchange FEMA

Flood aid relief controversy

I urge everyone to ASK QUESTIONS, lots of them,
before you waste money buying the wrong insurance.

Verify, verify, verify before you buy anything
http://www.fema.gov/disaster/4195

Buyer BEWARE , don’t assume a damn thing.

In the past, claims paid out by the
Federal Emergency Management Agency
— is separate –
from payments made by
FEMA’s National Flood Insurance Program.

Read that again, they are 2 separate programs.

FEMA officials acknowledge sewer backups
are not covered under the insurance program

Water entering your house from sewer pipes
is not “flooding” under the official
federal insurance definition.

Rainwater flooding as opposed to sewage flooding.
— water invaded through window wells, foundation cracks or doorways
— Overland flooding is different from Underground flooding

National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/272?id=1404

PLEASE educate yourself as much as possible;
read, research, ask questions, verify.
Get the actual facts and skip the rumors, hearsay, etc.

Official FEMA declaration in effect

Letter in my electronic mailbox this afternoon around 3:30pm

Thank you for contacting Governor Rick Snyder’s Office
regarding the flooding that occurred in Macomb,
Oakland and Wayne counties on August 11.

At the request of Governor Snyder,
President Obama has declared a major disaster
for the state of Michigan
as a result of the
historic storm and flash flooding that
occurred in Macomb, Oakland and Wayne
counties on Aug. 11.

This declaration immediately opens the door
for assistance to people, businesses and
governments in the affected area.

People who need assistance can immediately apply
for grants for temporary housing and home repairs,
low-cost loans to cover uninsured property losses
and other programs to recover from the effects of the flooding.

Sincerely,
Ryan Studley
Constituent Relations Division
Executive Office of the Governor, Rick Snyder

FEMA Michigan September25 2014

FEMA Michigan September25 2014

So how much traffic will the website
http://www.disasterassistance.gov/ see tomorrow ?

Facts About Flood Insurance
http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/divisions/disaster_ops/flood_fs.pdf

MYTH: “My standard home owners’ insurance will cover me
if my house is damaged or destroyed in a flood.”
FACT: Home owners’ insurance does not cover flood damage. Federal flood insurance, purchased through your insurance agent or company, is the only guaranteed flood insurance coverage available for your home.

MYTH: “Federal disaster aid, available during and after a flood, will reimburse me for losses. Therefore, I don’t need to buy flood insurance for my home and belongings.”
FACT: Federal Emergency Management Agency disaster aid is only available during Presidentially declared disasters. Federal aid may often be in the form of a loan that you must pay back with interest. Flood insurance policies pay claims whether or not a disaster is declared.

MYTH: “I live outside the floodplain, so I don’t need to buy flood insurance.”
FACT: More than 25 percent of the National Flood Insurance Program’s (NFIP) flood insurance claims are for structures outside identified flood plains. Floods can occur anywhere. An area that is near a levee or a dam is at risk of levee or dam breakage. People who face even moderate flood risks should get insurance, which can be purchased for as little as $80 per year.

MYTH: “I can’t buy flood insurance because my home has been flooded previously.”
FACT: If your community is participating in the NFIP, it doesn’t matter that your home has been flooded before. You may still buy flood insurance.

MYTH: “If people don’t want to purchase flood insurance,
it’s their own business. It doesn’t really affect me.”
FACT: When people do not buy flood insurance, you pay more for federal and state disaster relief. Flood insurance is one of the best ways to keep disaster relief costs down for all taxpayers.

MYTH: “Flood insurance is only available for homeowners.”
FACT: Flood insurance is available to protect homes, condominiums and nonresidential buildings including farm and commercial structures in participating communities. Contents coverage also is available, so coverage is available to renters as well.

MYTH: “If they predict a flood in the near future, it’s too late for me to purchase insurance.” FACT: You can purchase flood insurance anytime in a participating community. However, there is a 30-day waiting period after you have applied and paid the premium before the policy is in effect. The policy will not, however, cover a loss in progress.

MYTH: “I can only buy federal flood insurance through the federal government.”
FACT: You can buy federal flood insurance through most major private insurance
companies and licensed property insurance agents who sell home owners’ or property insurance.

MYTH: “The NFIP does not offer any type of basement coverage.”
FACT: Yes it does. The NFIP defines a basement as any area of a building with a floor that is subgrade below ground level on all sides. Basement coverage under an NFIP policy includes clean up expenses and items used to service homes and buildings. These can include elevators, furniture, water heaters, air conditioners, freezers, utility connections, circuit breaker boxes, pumps, and tanks used in solar energy systems. Flood insurance will not cover the contents of a finished basement and basement improvement such as finished walls, floors and ceilings.

Compare annual water/sewer costs

Water and Sewage Charges Annually in the USA
from a study done just a year ago.

A family of four, uses about 400 gallons of water per day.
Each household is unique, your usage may vary.

http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/docs/ws_indoor508.pdf

Some communities are paying a LOT for water service
It’s nice to know Detroit, Michigan is near the middle

The chart says ANNUAL when it’s meant to say monthly.
I emailed Black and Veatch to verify.

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Water Sewage Charges Annually USA

Water Sewage Charges Annually USA

Macomb County underground

The Interceptor drain project set the precedent
– a regional settlement of assets -
reached between DWSD and its suburban customers.

The City of Warren plays a pivotal role.
The Interceptor project (which Oakland County needs)
goes through Warren and Warren SHOULD be connected to it.

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Interceptor Project with Detroit

Interceptor Project with Detroit

U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Steven Rhodes said he will reveal
how much of a claim he will allow Macomb County
to use in voting as a creditor in Detroit’s bankruptcy.
The issue relates to the suburban county’s ongoing legal fight
to get repaid for what it says were gross overcharges
for repairs after a major sewer line collapsed
in Sterling Heights in 2004, creating a giant sinkhole.
Macomb County Public Works Commissioner Anthony Marrocco
in 2011 sued former Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick,
members of his administration, Kilpatrick friend
and contractor Bobby Ferguson and others over
the 2004-05 repair project that Marrocco claims
cost $26 million more than it should have
because of fraudulent overbilling.

The Interceptor was the beginnings of Regional Authority,
anyone who paid a bit of attention saw the writing on the wall.

The Macomb Interceptor Drain serves 522,000 people in 11 Macomb communities.
At the time the 11-foot sewer line collapsed near 15 Mile and Hayes in 2004,
the DWSD owned the lines, but Macomb bought the line in 2010
and now says fraudulently overbilled repair costs were passed on to the county.

WHY its called the OMID, is a mystery to me.
The project has a MASSIVE amount of content in MACOMB.
Oakland County needs this connection to prevent
itself from drowning in sewage and stormwater.

Oakland Macomb Interceptor

Oakland Macomb Interceptor

GLEAM and Michigan CSO Discharge

Detroit and the surrounding suburban communities need to do better.
We are polluting the very water we need DAILY to sustain ourselves.
No treatment plant is capable of scrubbing/cleaning/decontamination of
every chemical that shows up in the drinking water. They focus on just a few.
The rest of the chemicals slip by, to end up at your faucet, in your home.

Government does the bare minimum – by law
NOT the absolute maximum to protect you.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/unregulated-chemicals-found-in-drinking-water/

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GLEAM mapping project

GLEAM mapping project


GLEAM CSO discharges

GLEAM CSO discharges

Second Circuit Upholds $104.7 Million Decision
–against Exxon Mobil for MTBE in City Water

-A federal appeals court July 26 upheld a $104.7 million damage
award against Exxon Mobil Corp. for pollution of
New York City water resources with the gasoline additive
methyl tertiary butyl ether.
-The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that
the Clean Air Act did not preempt New York tort law.
The court also said the case against Exxon Mobil was not
undermined by the low level of detected MTBE pollution
or the fact that the city was not yet
trying to make use of the affected waters.
-Exxon Mobil had argued, among other things,
that the Clean Air Act obligated its use of MTBE
because the New York City region
lacked sufficient supplies of alternatives, primarily ethanol.
-But the court said the jury at the lower court level
determined guilt not solely because MTBE
was used but because of other additional factors,
such as failure to exercise ordinary care in preventing spills.
-The ruling upheld a decision finalized in 2010
in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York
in a case brought against the company by New York City,
the New York City Water Board, and the New York City
Municipal Water Finance Authority.

-Source: Bloomberg BNA Environmental Reporter
7/26/2013 Breaking News
discussing In Re: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (”MTBE”)
Products Liability Litigation, 2d Cir.,
Nos. 10-4135, 10-4329, 7/26/13)

Controlling the GWK Basin

The GWK Retention Treatment Basin has various controls
and monitoring abilities as a thunderstorm is a dynamic
event with a starting point, a middle, and an ending point.
Some days there are multiple rain storms, other days involve
prolonged steady rain over 24 hours or more.
Weather reports involving detailed radar images give an estimate
of the amount of rain expected, timing, duration, etc.

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Control Panel GWK Retention Basin

Control Panel GWK Retention Basin

On the left side of the control screen you will see
blue arrows indicating the inlet weir.
Over the years , several weir modifications have been made.

Following the blue arrows, you will then see
4 Emergency Gates ( in white lettering )

Continuing on, in the middle, you see numerical readouts for items
North Weir West…….North Weir East
Weir Total Flow
South Weir West…….South Weir East

On the very far right of the control panel you’ll see
items for the Red Run Drain (upper right corner)
and items for the Dequindre Interceptor (lower right corner)

Historical background GWK basin

Historical background GWK basin

DETAILED Kuhn Retention Basin area

DETAILED Kuhn Retention Basin area

Inside the GWK basin

A view not released to the general media
showing the GWK Retention Basin UNDER-water
http://www.oakgov.com/water/Documents/gwk_11_aug_2014_wet_weather.pptx

~~~ CLICK to enlarge any of the images below ~~~~~~

GWK Drainage System

GWK Drainage System

Notice North Middle and South Branches

GWK System Map

GWK System Map

DETAILED Kuhn Retention Basin area

DETAILED Kuhn Retention Basin area

GWK retention basin design criteria

GWK retention basin design criteria

GWK design criteria

GWK design criteria

Notice the Emergency Broome Gates
-function as relief to allow more flow to enter
http://www.steel-fab-inc.com/gates-caterpillar.html

GWK original intake weir

GWK original intake weir

Notice Highway I-75 with Trucks in the background of pics
http://www.acecmi.org/2007awards/7.jpg

Flooded GWK Facility and grounds

Flooded GWK Facility and grounds

Red Run Kuhn Drain GWK Drainage Project 2

Red Run Kuhn Drain GWK Drainage Project 2

GWK facility underwater Aug 11 2014

GWK facility underwater Aug 11 2014

Notice the water height on Yellow Railings and Walls
http://www.greeningdetroit.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Paul-Vachon-Water-Treatment-Plant-1.jpg

Red Run Feces Screen Part 1

Red Run Feces Screen Part 1

Red Run overflowed Mound and Van Dyke

Red Run overflowed Mound and Van Dyke

RedRun RyanRoad August11_2014 WarrenMichigan

RedRun RyanRoad August 11_2014 WarrenMichigan

Warren key role in Interceptor

Oakland and Macomb county don’t always play nice
regarding water flowing into Warren, Michigan.
Water always flows downhill, due to topography.

Maybe its time the RE-Negotiate what the
Red Run Inter-County District actually is,
who controls its operation, and who pays what part.

Warren has a pivotal role , as a gateway of sorts,
— for draining most of Oakland County .
If Warren sealed its border shut,
Oakland County would drown in its own waste.

Period,…… not a doubt in my mind.

The entire Interceptor Project hinges upon WARREN.
Warren must be connected to it, almost by default.
The city is basically doing Oakland County a favor, for free.
Oakland County depends on Warren, not the other way around.
Dequindre Road is the borderline between the two.

Oakland County needs Warren, and should pay a yearly
“”usage fee”” for the nasty wide open drainage channel
from the Kuhn Basin called the Red Run Drain.
Does Warren have a soccer field or golf course
— as a direct result of the 12Towns Drain / Kuhn Basin ?
History has recorded the one sided deal for eternity.
Does Warren have a Bike Path through a greenway ?

My parents moved to Warren in the 60’s and all they got from
Oakland County was a strong-smelling, non-recreational waterway,
with a repeatedly flooded basement, due to poor municipal planning
from BOTH counties. Now its time to pay for the sins of the past.

~~~~~~~~~~click to enlarge all the images below~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Politics Oakland Macomb

Politics Oakland Macomb

Oakland Macomb Interceptor

Oakland Macomb Interceptor

SouthEast Michigan Sewage Districts

SouthEast Michigan Sewage Districts

Sub Watersheds SouthEast Michigan

Sub Watersheds SouthEast Michigan

Average sewer overflow ?

Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO) Discharge Information
DEQ reports what is normal, average, expected, each year.
I’ll let you draw your own conclusions regarding rainfall,
flooding events at your house, and what is “”average“”.

Now if the government reports “”a problem”” consistently, repeatedly,
year after year , for almost a decade, WHY does the problem continue to occur ?
Is the government protecting you, or do you have to protect yourself;
— via insurance riders, electrical pumps, disinfectant, garbage removal.

If 5 million residents paid $10 a year more in taxes, that’s $50 million / per year,
for repairs, maintenance, equipment upgrades, etc. – think about it.
How much did the last flood cost you, and the one before it, and so on ?

http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/2012_SSO-CSO_Report_body_-_final_430872_7.pdf

SSOs are releases of raw sewage from separate sanitary sewer
collection systems, which are designed to carry
sanitary sewage – but not storm water.

SSO events can discharge untreated human and industrial waste,
toxic materials, debris, and disease-causing organisms
onto the ground or into our rivers, lakes, or streams.

What causes SSO – Rain – A simple thunderstorm causes SSO events
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitary_sewer_overflow

LOOK  – COUNT –  how many events were above average the past 10 years  ?

.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ click to enlarge ~~~~~~~~~~

Average Rainfall SSO Events Michigan

Average Rainfall SSO Events Michigan

SSO’s are illegal – and usually constitute a serious environmental and
public health threat. Sewage discharges into basements may also occur,
but these events are not required to be reported to the DEQ
for entry into reports under Section 324.3112(a) of the NREPA.

Chronic SSO’s can also occur when sanitary systems are too small
to contain all the sanitary wastewater that is in the sewer system.
SSOs can result from system deterioration due to the age
of the sewer system and resulting excessive rain water inputs to the system.

DEQ SSO CSO Michigan map

DEQ SSO CSO Michigan map

Understanding RADAR and rain

How well do you understand what you see on a “radar image” ?
Do you really know how far away you are from the radar dome ?

~~~~ click to enlarge ~~~~~~~~~~~

Radar locations near Warren

Radar locations near Warren

It is best to use the TDWR radar in conjunction with
the traditional NWS NEXRAD doppler radar to insure nothing is missed.

Detroit Metro Airport – Composite Reflectivity -
ENHANCED Radar Image from National Weather Service
http://radar.weather.gov/radar.php?rid=dtx&overlays=11101111&product=N0R&loop=no

Weather Underground – Detroit Metro Airport -
TDWR High Definition – Composite Reflectivity
http://www.wunderground.com/radar/radblast.asp?ID=DTW

The National Weather Service has around 155 NEXRAD
doppler radar stations across the USA (usually near airports)

These NEXRAD stations can detect most precipitation
within approximately 90 mi of the radar,
and intense rain or snow within approximately 155 mi.

Radar and reflection

Radar and reflection










Radar on the web is usually from the local
NWS Doppler radar (NEXRAD).
The image you look at online is made up of
several different images from a series of radars.

Radar at various tilt levels

Radar at various tilt levels

























When a radar scans the atmosphere for storms,
it tilts at different elevations.
The Doppler Radar’s maximum tilt elevation is 19.5 degrees.

– So when a storm is near or over the radar site, data is unavailable

Radar Cone of silence

Radar Cone of silence

Base reflectivity only shows reflected energy
at a single elevation scan of the radar.

Composite reflectivity displays the highest reflectivity
of ALL elevations scans.

So, if heavier precipitation, is higher in the atmosphere,
– over an area of lighter precipitation
(the heavier rain that has yet to reach the ground),
the composite reflectivity image will display
the stronger dBZ level.

This occurs often with severe thunderstorms.
The updraft, which feeds the thunderstorm with moist air,
is strong enough to keep a large amount of water aloft.
Once the updraft can no longer support the
weight of suspended water , then the rain intensity at the surface
increases as the rain falls from the cloud.

~~~~ click to enlarge ~~~~~~~~~~~

TDWR radar

TDWR radar

The Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) is an
advanced technology weather radar deployed
near 45 of the larger airports in the U.S.A

TDWR at Detroit Airport KDTW
(Simply scroll down until you see Detroit DTW)
http://somdweather.com/radartdwr.shtml

The newer Terminal Doppler Weather Radars are higher resolution,
and can “see” details in much finer detail close to the radar.
Thanks to a collaboration between the National Weather Service (NWS)
and the FAA, the data for all 45 TDWRs is now available in
real time via a free satellite broadcast (NOAAPORT).
Some systems call them “High-Def” stations.

The Weather Underground maintains a NOAAPORT satellite dish
which continuously ingests the Level III NEXRAD radar data
directly from the National Weather Service Doppler radars.
http://www.wunderground.com/radar/help.asp?

* The TDWR rainfall products generally underestimate precipitation,
due to attenuation problems.
TDWRs use shorter wavelengths to see details as small as 150 meters
along the beam, at the radar’s regular range.
This is nearly twice the resolution of the NEXRAD doppler radars.

*The most serious drawback to using the TDWRs is the
attenuation of the signal due to heavy precipitation falling near the radar.
Since the TDWRs use the shorter 5 cm wavelength,
which is closer to the size of a raindrop
than the 10 cm wavelength used by the traditional radar,
the TDWR beam is more easily absorbed
and scattered away by precipitation.
*This attenuation means that the radar cannot “see” very far
through heavy rain.

It is often the case that a TDWR will completely miss
seeing tornado signatures when there is heavy rain
falling between the radar and the tornado.
Hail causes even more trouble.

It is best to use the TDWR radar in conjunction with
the traditional NWS doppler radar to insure nothing is missed.

Detroit Metro Airport – Composite Reflectivity -
ENHANCED Radar Image from National Weather Service
http://radar.weather.gov/radar.php?rid=dtx&overlays=11101111&product=N0R&loop=no

Weather Underground – Detroit Metro Airport -
TDWR High Definition – Composite Reflectivity
http://www.wunderground.com/radar/radblast.asp?ID=DTW

Michigan Water Security

Water Infrastructure and Public Info can be problematic.
Understanding how and why flooding occurs, is hampered by
non-transparent resources in many Michigan cities.

WaterISAC – The Water Sector’s Official Threat & Preparedness Resource

Increasing Safety and Resilience:
Understanding the Threat to Water Infrastructure

Water Security Summit
Michigan AWWA Section
June 4, 2013

Overview of WaterISAC

Security and emergency response tools and resources to help
improve safety and resilience in an all hazards environment

The current physical and cyber threat environment
facing water and wastewater utilities

Recent security incidents

What and where to report

WaterISAC’s mission is to provide water and wastewater
utilities and the federal, state, and local government agencies
responsible for water security with the information and tools
needed to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from all
hazards.

Background

Authorized under the Bioterrorism Act

Launched in 2002 by utility managers as a non-profit

Designated the official communications/operations arm of
the Water Sector Coordinating Council

The only centralized, real-time source for water sector
security and emergency management information

Membership

More than 3,500 Pro members; 8,000 Basic members

Water and wastewater utility staff

State drinking water, public health, and environmental agencies

DHS, EPA and FBI staff

Fusion centers and law enforcement personnel

State and local security and emergency response agencies

All applicants for membership are vetted.

Partners

U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security

FBI , U.S. EPA , FEMA , Centers for Disease Control

National Weather Service/NOAA

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

National, State Water Associations

Law Enforcement and Intelligence Fusion Centers

Private Intelligence Organizations

Searchable library of Library more than 2,500
papers, reports, guidance, and best-practice documents
including sensitive intelligence products
designated FOUO and U.S. Eyes Only.

Problem: Need to improve employee emergency
preparedness. . . on a tight budget.
Solution: Browsing the WaterISAC Pro library
reveals self-directed training programs
and courses hosted by water industry associations, DHS, and EPA.

Contaminant Databases

Contaminant databases maintained by private scientific
institutions and U.S. EPA

Assessment Tools

Problem: Your Emergency Response Plan lacks procedures
for a power outage.

Solution: The U.S. EPA’s Tabletop Exercise Tool for Water Systems
contains multiple natural-hazard scenarios.
Run the tool from the WaterISAC portal and
gain valuable lessons to improve
your emergency preparedness posture.

Webcasts & Training

Problem: Staff need NIMS-certification for disaster recovery funding.

Solution: Review NIMS training webinar series to prepare for online examinations

Problem: Convince city manager of risks from malicious insiders

Solution: Listen to the recording of the Mesa, AZ webcast
on attempted destruction of wastewater treatment plant

Member-to-Member Dialog

Online discussions , Networking , Content creation

Problem: An employee is exhibiting emotional distress,
and you are concerned about where that could lead.
You want to know how other utilities have handled such situations.

Solution: You start a discussion thread or identify
relevant contacts through the personal profile pages
on the WaterISAC secure portal.

Intelligence Analysts

Email — analyst@waterisac.org

24-Hr Hotline 866-h2o-isac

Problem: Suspicious vehicle repeatedly passing your front gate.

Solution: Contact the WaterISAC analyst, who reviews recent incident
reports for possible trends and contacts other utilities/partners.

Problem: In the aftermath of a disaster, you’re having trouble getting
the attention of your state EOC and FEMA.

Solution: Call the WaterISAC analyst who uses his contacts to put you and
the relevant authorities in touch with each other.

Threat & Incident Alerts

Problem: A hurricane or tsunami is approaching your location.

Solution: Storm tracking and infrastructure impact
assessments sent from WaterISAC enable you to
implement your emergency response and business continuity plans,
ensuring that your employees are in safe
locations and appropriate alternate power sources are standing by.

WaterISAC Sensitive and Proprietary Threat Analysis

Potential Attack Scenarios

Physical

Contamination

Cyber

Potential Perpetrators

Terrorists, including homegrown violent extremists and domestic
terrorist organizations of varying ideologies

Insiders , Criminals and vandals , Natural Disasters, Industrial Accidents

Increased identification of cyber vulnerabilities and attention to
industrial control systems by a variety of threat actors.

Economic conditions continue to make theft,
particularly of metal, an attractive target.

Open source technology resources may inadvertently identify
sensitive information

Malicious insiders with knowledge of critical operations or access to
sensitive information are significant risks.

In Inspire magazine, al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula has urged
Westerners to conduct attack in their own countries against a range of
targets, including critical infrastructure.

Attacks by violent, single-issue extremists and active shooters
represent a largely unspecific threat

Prepared by WaterISAC’s intelligence analyst, based on:

Unclassified information discussed in briefings with U.S.
Government intelligence analysts, and

Incident reports submitted by WaterISAC members and law
enforcement agencies.

In the first half of this year, WaterISAC received reports of the
following suspicious activities and incidents at water utilities:

Physical Intrusion

Sabotage / tampering / vandalism

Cyber incidents

Theft

Suspicious encounters

Specific Incidents

Insider Attack/Intrusion/Theft
The thief circumvented the intrusion alarm system at a pump site by breaking
into a HVAC vent, gaining access into the facility without activating any alarms.
The suspect stole copper wire and caused the disinfection system to stop running.
Police and utility believe an insider was involved due to knowledge of protocols.

Verbal Threat/Contamination
An individual mentioned to local convenience store employees how easy it
would be to cause trouble by contaminating the local water supply, specifically
with gasoline. Investigation determined the suspect had been arrested for making
threats against other infrastructure in the area, prompting federal charges.

Suspicious Encounter/Observations
Police and state homeland security investigated an individual who was stopped
while flying a remote controlled helicopter with GPS and camera over a dam that
provided source water for a local utility.

Incident Reporting

Timely, detailed incident and suspicious activity reporting is key to our
collective security

Enables greater and more effective incident notifications

Building library for tracking and analysis

Design and implementation of protective measures

Report an incident to WaterISAC

http://www.waterisac.org

analyst@waterisac.org

1-866-426-4722 x 3

Contact Information

Eric Meyers
Lead Analyst

202-331-0479
866-H2O-ISAC x 3
analyst@waterisac.org
http://www.waterisac.org

1620 I Street, NW, Suite 500
Washington, DC 20006

What goes into Kuhn Retention Basin ?

Why does WARREN have floods far too often ?

The peak flow of the GWK Retention Basin
is approximately 6,700 cfs and
the detention time is around 31 minutes.
http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1126/ML112620177.pdf

A mere 1 inch rainfall on a 1,000 sq ft parking lot = 623 gallons of water

750 gallons = 100 cubic feet

So the Kuhn Basin handles something like 50,000 gallons per second
– coming at it from the North, Middle and South of Oakland County

Oakland Mall alone has parking for 8,500 vehicles.
Oakland Mall is 1.5-million-square-foot area.
Oakland Square is 220,726-square-foot east of the mall.
Oakland Plaza is 161,797-square-foot across from the mall.
Real estate info brochure http://bit.ly/OaklandMall

THINK where the rain falls : concrete, asphalt, roofs, roads
and ALL that water must finds its way into the drains
and flow into the Clinton River – for BOTH Counties.

What happens to people Downstream as the Red Run Drain fills up ?

Take a close look for the DEQUINDRE INTERCEPTOR ;
think about how much capacity it might handle;
as it flows into Detroit.

~~~~~~~~~~~ CLICK to enlarge and read ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

DETAILED  Kuhn Retention Basin area

DETAILED Kuhn Retention Basin area

Oakland Mall area

Oakland Mall area

Population predictions from 2003

Population predictions from 2003

Operating the GWK Retention Basin

The George W. Kuhn Retention Treatment Basin expansion
had final construction completed in 2006 .

This storage system can hold up to 124 million gallons
of combined sewage – for later release.

The existing inlet structure receives flow
from the North, Middle and South sections
of the GWK Drainage System.

The sewage flow is normally discharged by gravity
to a 60-inch diameter sanitary sewer located upstream.
The sanitary sewer can discharge up to 100 cfs
— under surcharged conditions.
The 60-inch sewer discharges to the 12-Mile Road interceptor.

During wet weather periods, discharge to the sanitary sewer continues
and excess flow is stored in the system
— until the hydraulic gradient rises to the inlet weir elevation.

Approximately forty-two separate storm sewers and
two combined sewers from the City of Madison Heights,
and a sanitary sewer from Hazel Park
are directly connected to the RTF sidewalls.

The inlet weir structure includes
two motorized 18-foot wide roller sluice gates,
referred to as “broome gates”.
The broome gates function as hydraulic relief
to allow more flow to enter the RTF.

Currently, the Broome gates open whenever
the level over the inlet weir exceeds two feet.

Dry weather sewage flow from the GWK drainage district
is discharged to the DWSD sewer system via
the SOCSDS’s Dequindre Road interceptor.
The Dequindre interceptor serves as an outlet
for the combined sewers in the GWK Drainage District
and for the large separated sewer area in the
Cities of Troy, Hazel Park and Madison Heights.
The discharge through the Dequindre interceptor
is regulated at a contractual maximum rate of 260 cfs.

Technical Memorandum
Original Date: April 11, 2002
Revision Date: September 2003
Author: Tetra Tech MPS

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CLICK to enlarge ~~~~~~~~~~~~~

GWK Flow Schematic Kuhn Retention Basin

GWK Flow Schematic Kuhn Retention Basin

Notice the elevation of 597 ft above sea level
-compare to the Ryan Road Bridge flood plain of 615 ft

Kuhn RTF Red Run Drain

Kuhn RTF Red Run Drain

Flood Plain Elevation Red Run Bridge

Flood Plain Elevation Red Run Bridge

Red Run Drain overtaking 5 Lane Ryan Road Bridge Warren

Red Run Drain overtaking 5 Lane Ryan Road Bridge Warren

Exact same bridge in 2011 – before the pedestrian walkway was added on

High Water Mark Ryan Road Red Run Bridge

High Water Mark Ryan Road Red Run Bridge

The exact same bridge at low water flow under Ryan Road in Warren

Grass Red Run near Heavenly Lane

Grass Red Run near Heavenly Lane

Ryan Road Red Run Bridge Warren Michigan

Ryan Road Red Run Bridge Warren Michigan

2014 Storm Water Summit

Interested in learning more about water and where it goes ?
This is an ALL DAY long event from 8:30am to 4:30pm

2014 Storm Water Summit

2014 Storm Water Summit

REGISTRATION LINK
http://events.r20.constantcontact.com/register/eventReg?llr=5jb6bgfab&oeidk=a07e9p00a230de3c2ec

Oakland County Water Resources Commissioner’s Office
Pure Oakland Water (POW)
(248) 858 – 0663

Overflow, Retention Basins, Watershed, CSO What Does It All Mean To Us?

Willi H2O:

Perspective from another writer, highlighting many of the same concerns I’ve mentioned , affecting Metro-Detroit residents

Originally posted on Truth Page:

Over flow, retention basins, watershed, CSO (combined sewer overflow) all terms that are thrown around to try and explain why our basements are flooding. So in an effort to understand things a little better myself I did some reading. Here are some things I’ve found out.

A combined sewer is the predominant type of sewer system in the metropolitan Detroit area, and all sewers within the city proper are combined sewers. Basically, a combined sewer is an older design, found in most large cities, that combines storm water runoff and sanitary sewage within a single system. In The Flow Spring 2010/Vol 10, No 2

All wastewater from the 76 suburban communities that purchase DWSD sewage service ends up in Detroit’s sewer interceptor pipes, said Terrance Moore, head sewage plant operator. Moore explained that water builds up and moves quickly through the system during a rainstorm. Water that goes to a…

View original 2,663 more words

Oakland vs Macomb in StormWater Wars

A few years ago I had some personal and written communication
with folks from the Oakland County Water Resources group
that were involved with the 12TownsDrain aka GWK aka Kuhn Basin.

The response back then was :

The Kuhn Retention Basin project was never intended
to reduce or eliminate actual flooding on the Red Run Drain
.”

All of the storm water that falls in southeast Oakland County
and southwest Macomb County must flow down the Red Run Drain
.”

The project did separate many of the storm water outlets
from the Retention Treatment Basin and redirected them into
actual storm drains thereby reducing the chances
of spilling combined sewage into the Red Run Drain
.”

The project greatly improved an ability to monitor
and disinfect the combined sewage in the event
of the basin spilling to the Red Run Drain
.”

Oakland County Water Resources
One Public Works Drive
Building 95 West
Waterford, MI 48328-1907

I believe Oakland County needs to dredge the Red Run deeper,
and look extremely hard at alternatives that – do not add -
water volume to the Red Run Drain or Clinton River.

Macomb County – should not be -
the stormwater dumping grounds
for Oakland County, period !
Residents of Warren and other communities
suffer immensely because Oakland County
FORCES the stormwater upon us.

Let Oakland County devise alternate solutions that don’t
punish the folks living on the other side of Dequindre Road.
Maybe Oakland County needs less golf courses and
more retention basin volume near the Red Run Drain.
Maybe they need to divert more flow to Detroit / Wayne County.
I am just a resident of Warren that has had enough of flooding
over the 50 years my parents owned a home near the Red Run.
YES, I said multiple, numerous, repeated, flooded basement issues !

CHANGE is needed, repeated flooding is documented,
and governmental offices are quite aware of it.

Oakland County Drainage

Oakland County Drainage

FEMA teams come to Macomb

FEMA representatives will be coming to Macomb County
to evaluate structural damage within the area.
Hopefully those residents hit hard with shifted foundations
will get some assistance from the Federal government agency

~~~~~~~~ click to enlarge ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

FEMA teams in Michigan

FEMA teams in Michigan

Veolia DWSD are old partners

According to a recent article in The Detroit News:
The international private water company Veolia
will review an optimization plan for DWSD.

Veolia is NOT new on the scene, and in fact has
been in and around DWSD back in 2011.

DWSD PC-781 May 2011

DWSD PC-781 May 2011


Veolia Water DWSD Contract PC-781

Veolia Water DWSD Contract PC-781

http://www.dwsd.org/downloads_n/projects_procurements/procurements/PC-781_addendum-3.pdf

Veolia has a 20-year, $1.5 billion deal to
manage The City of Indianapolis’ water system.
It is Veolia’s largest water contract in the USA.

Repeatedly releasing a flood

Government officials need the occasional memory refresher
to keep them on their toes over the years in office.

Warren has been FLOODED numerous times the past 50 years.
The internet helps to provide the documentation.
– Quite recently it occurred in 2008, 2011 and now 2014.

An absolutely MASSIVE amount of water is capable of
flowing via the Red Run Drain into the Clinton River.

It becomes a river 130 feet wide and 30 feet deep

Residents of Warren do remember, record, document, and distribute.
People living along the Red Run and Clinton at lower elevations
also clearly remember, record, and document their pain/suffering/loss.

History 2008 -
https://picasaweb.google.com/108590711667865641354/RedRunDrainRyanRoad

History 2011 -
On May 25, 2011 the George W. Kuhn Retention Treatment Basin
discharged approximately 1.6 BILLION gallons of combined sewage
into the Red Run Drain. according to the
Oakland County Water Resources Commissioner.

Red Run 130 ft Wide 30 ft deep

Red Run 130 ft Wide 30 ft deep

Elevation Ryan Road Bridge Red Run Warren

Elevation Ryan Road Bridge Red Run Warren

Side View Red Run Ryan Road Bridge

Side View Red Run Ryan Road Bridge

Flood Plain Elevation Red Run Bridge

Flood Plain Elevation Red Run Bridge

History 2011 – Red Run at Ryan Road Bridge

August 2014 – When Red Run at 620 ft or above
so are ALL the drains in the area.
Water will always find its own level regardless of topography

Ryan Road underwater Red Run Bridge Warren

Ryan Road underwater Red Run Bridge Warren


Red Run over banks Ryan Road Bridge Warren

Red Run over banks Ryan Road Bridge Warren


Red Run Drain overtaking 5 Lane Ryan Road Bridge Warren

Red Run Drain overtaking 5 Lane Ryan Road Bridge Warren


Water seeks its own level

Water seeks its own level


Green Water Level Various Pipes

Green Water Level Various Pipes


Architectural Water Level

Architectural Water Level

Major City Heat Islands and Rainfall

Temperatures in a city can be from 5 to 10 degrees higher
than that of the surrounding rural areas.
This is the urban heat island (UHI) effect.
http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/essd16mar_1m/

In a recent study, NASA employed the TRMM
(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite to analyze
the rainfall distribution over major cities in the U.S.
The remote sensing data showed that the heat island effect
increased summer rain – over and downwind of major cities.
The rainfall in those two primary areas
exceeded rainfall in the downwind locations
by 48 percent and to as much as 116 percent.

As the air in the city warms two important factors occur,
the warmer air over the city rises faster
and a thermal gradient is created
between the city and the surrounding rural areas.
These two factors combine to create an area of convergence
and lead to an enhanced lifting of the airmass over the city.
The higher level of pollutants contained in this
rising urban airmass in turn leads to an increase
in the number of condensation nuclei in atmosphere.
All of these factors combine to create an increase
in clouds and under the right circumstances
an increase in the amount of rainfall.

Because the air over the city is warmer
it has the capacity to hold more moisture.
In order to produce the rain an ample supply
of moisture must also be available.
Because the air over the city is warmer
it has the capacity to hold more moisture
and it must be lifted higher in order to condense.
As you reach the outer edges of the city
that capacity decreases due to the
gradual decrease in temperature.
The rain or thunderstorm that develops downwind
is a result of the moisture rich airmass
that was once in place over the city
has now drifted into an airmass of cooler temperatures
thus increasing the relative humidity
of this incoming parcel of air
which in turn increases its ability to produce precipitation.

Areas most likely to receive precipitation
will be in and around the city
or in the downwind location.
The most likely time for precipitation will be
near the peak of the daytime maximum temperature.
Monitoring temperatures, surface winds, area dew points,
and water vapor imagery will help with identifying
moisture rich areas thus giving the forecaster
an idea of areas to target for potential
rain or thunderstorm development.
Research has shown that the heaviest areas of precipitation
will occur in the city or in the downwind locations.

Learn more at :
http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/resources/news.htm

StormWater and WasteWater Treatment Plants around Metro-Detroit.

Waste Water Treatment Plants Map

Waste Water Treatment Plants Map

SouthEast Michigan Sewage Districts

SouthEast Michigan Sewage Districts

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